Myopia (nearsightedness) and its treatment

Myopia treatment ni Gurgaon

Myopia, commonly known as nearsightedness, is a refractive error that affects a significant number of children . It is a condition where individuals can see nearby objects clearly, but distant objects appear blurry. Myopia, or nearsightedness, affects a significant portion of the population worldwide. While the exact cause remains unclear, a combination of genetic , eye structure and environmental factors contributes to its development.

Causes and Risk Factors

Myopia occurs as a result of natural variation in structure of eye ball . If the length of eye ball is more (1mm increase is corrected by -2.5 d spectacles power) or corneal curvature is steep or lens is more thick, then a person can have myopia. Its our own genetic pattern which decides how much myopia a person will have. If one or both parents have myopia, there is a higher chance of their children developing the condition. Additionally, excessive near work, such as reading or using electronic devices for extended periods, can contribute to the progression of myopia, especially in children.


The primary symptom of myopia is difficulty seeing distant objects clearly. Other common symptoms include eyestrain, headaches, squinting, and fatigue when engaging in activities that require focusing on distant objects, such as driving or watching a movie in a theatre. Children with myopia may experience difficulties in school, as they may have trouble seeing the board or reading materials from a distance.


An eye examination conducted by an optometrist or ophthalmologist is necessary to diagnose myopia. The examination typically involves a visual acuity test, where you read letters from a chart, and a refraction test to determine the precise prescription for corrective lenses. In some cases, additional tests may be performed to assess the overall health and measurment of the eyes.

  • Eyeglasses:

    Prescription eyeglasses are the most common and effective treatment for myopia. The lenses in the eyeglasses correct the refractive error, allowing the individual to see distant objects clearly. Regular eye check-ups are recommended to ensure that the prescription remains up to date.

  • Contact lenses:

    Contact lenses provide an alternative to eyeglasses for myopia correction. They sit directly on the eye's surface and can provide a wider field of view compared to eyeglasses. Various types of contact lenses are available, including soft, rigid gas permeable, and speciality lenses for astigmatism or multifocal correction. It is crucial to follow proper hygiene and care guidelines while wearing contact lenses to prevent eye infections.

  • Diluted atropine eye drops:

    These are given in children with axial myopia who show fast progression of myopia. Clinical trials say that they can be effective in 60 to 70% of chidren

  • Orthokeratology:

    Orthokeratology, commonly known as ortho-k, involves wearing special gas-permeable contact lenses overnight. These lenses temporarily reshape the cornea, providing clear vision during the day without the need for corrective lenses. However, this method requires a selection criteria, strict adherence to the wearing schedule and regular follow-up visits with an eye care professional.

  • Refractive surgery:

    For individuals seeking a more permanent solution, refractive surgery can be an option. Laser-assisted procedures, such as LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis) and PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy), reshape the cornea to correct myopia. This is done after the age of 18years and the spectacles power should be stable for more then a year . These surgeries are typically safe and effective, but they require a thorough pre evaluation by an ophthalmologist to determine candidacy and potential risks.

Prevention and Lifestyle Modifications

While myopia may have a genetic component, certain lifestyle modifications can help reduce the risk or slow down its progression:

  • Take regular breaks during near-work activities and practice the 20-20-20 rule: every 20 minutes, look at an object 20 feet away for 20 seconds.
  • Spend time outdoors, as studies have shown that increased exposure to natural light can have a protective effect against myopia development in children.
  • Maintain a proper reading distance and good posture when using electronic devices or reading.
  • Encourage children to limit screen time and engage in outdoor activities.

We cannot prevent myopia and there is no alternative method or medical treatment for myopia. Consult an ophthalmolgist to discuss various treatment options, including eyeglasses, contact lenses, orthokeratology, and refractive surgery, are available to correct myopia and improve vision. By adopting healthy lifestyle habits and following proper eye care practices, individuals can also reduce the risk of myopia or slow down its progression. Regular eye examinations and consultations with eye care professionals are essential for accurate diagnosis, monitoring, and appropriate treatment of myopia.

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